They Wove for Horses: Diné Saddle Blankets
(Santa Fe, February 6, 2012)—They Wove for Horses: Diné Saddle Blankets opens at the Museum of Indian Arts and Culture on March 25, 2012 (on long-term view). The exhibition highlights both the textile-weaving proficiency of Diné weavers who produced complex saddle blankets for all occasions and the design skills of Diné silversmiths who created dazzling headstalls of silver and turquoise.
The saddle blankets on exhibit date from 1860 to 2002 and are arranged by weaving methods: tapestry weave; two-faced double weave; and twill weaves of diagonal, diamond, and herringbone patterns. By using a variety of warp and weft yarns—natural wool, cotton, angora mohair, unraveled bayeta, and Germantown—weavers added individuality to the everyday and fanciful tapestries they created for horses.
Horse trappings on exhibit reveal the great pride that Diné horsemen took in their horses and how they adorned them for ceremonial and social events. The Diné first learned how to manufacture saddles and bridles from neighboring cultures and their proficiency quickly surpassed that of their mentors. That devotion resonates still, as the horse remains a viable living force in Diné life today.
Early Saddle Blankets
Before saddle blankets, sheepskin or angora mohair hides were used as saddle pads and bedrolls. As the Diné acquired domesticated sheep from the Spanish, they began to weave saddle blankets, first in a tufted mohair style
In time, plain-weave tapestry blankets evolved into geometric motifs, and designs ranged from simple—as in banded patterns—to complex—as in the various twills and double- and two-faced weaves.
Early nineteenth-century accounts indicate that bridles used by Diné horsemen at the time consisted of tanned leather embellished with silver ornaments. These likely were obtained from outside sources until silversmithing techniques became part of the Diné repertoire. Atsidi Sani (ca. 1830-ca. 1918) often is referred to as one of the first of the Diné to learn the trade, in the mid-nineteenth century. Soon after, the Diné surpassed their peers, becoming proficient in crafting and trading horse trappings, and renowned for creating elaborate harnesses with silver headstalls and bits.
When the Diné obtained handmade saddles, improvements again were fast to come. They replaced simple string cinches with elaborately hand-woven straps with designs as intricate as those on saddle blankets and throws. The cinches, whether woven before being attached to the cinch ring or woven on the ring from the start, often were of hand-spun and hand-plied yarn that would reduce chafing. For added comfort, hand-woven saddle blankets were devised to go under saddles and provide padding so that cinches could shift as horses navigated diverse terrain. Hand-woven saddle throws were more for show, basically fancy blankets placed over saddles for social events.
Early Diné Horse Culture
Before the arrival of the horse, foot travel was a constant challenge for the Diné and other tribes in the vast Southwest. When horses were introduced to the region by Spaniards, in the sixteenth or early seventeenth century, the lifestyle and culture of the Diné dramatically changed. Horses provided mobility and increased opportunities for hunting, trade, raiding, and advancement.
When Spanish colonizers retreated during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 they left behind thousands of Spanish-bred horses—primarily Spanish barbs—in the Rio Grande area. The Diné and other tribes increased their herds and, for men, owning horses meant added prestige, as well as an important means to better provide for and defend families or extended clan families.
The Diné honor the horse in traditional stories, songs, and ceremonies. And, the heritage of horsemanship continues to thrive on the reservation, alongside more recent interests, such as cowboying and rodeo. Today, the fruits of early innovations in the artistry of trappings, from bridles to blankets, are the very foundation of many Diné artists' livelihood.
Located on Museum Hill™, the Museum of Indian Arts & Culture shares the beautiful Milner Plaza with the Museum of International Folk Art. Here, Now and Always, a major permanent exhibition at the Museum of Indian Arts & Culture, combines the voices of living Native Americans with ancient and contemporary artifacts and interactive multimedia to tell the complex stories of the Southwest. The Buchsbaum Gallery displays ceramics from the region’s pueblos. Five changing galleries present exhibits on subjects ranging from archaeological excavations to contemporary art. In addition, an outdoor sculpture garden offers rotating exhibits of works by Native American sculptors.
The Museum of Indian Arts & Culture is a division of the Department of Cultural Affairs.
Information for the Public
Location: The Museum of Indian Arts & Culture is located on Museum Hill™, Camino Lejo off Old Santa Fe Trail.
Information: 505-476-1250 or visit www.indianartsandculture.org
Days/Times: Tuesday through Sunday, 10:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. Between Memorial Day and Labor Day the Museum is also open on Monday.
Admission: Adult single-museum admission is $6 for New Mexico residents, $9 for nonresidents; OR $15 for one-day pass to two museums of your choice (Museum of Indian Arts & Culture, Museum of International Folk Art, New Mexico Museum of Art, and Palace of the Governors/New Mexico History Museum) OR $20 four-day pass to the four museums listed above. Youth 16 and under, Foundation Members, and New Mexico Veterans with 50% or more disability always free
Sundays: New Mexico residents with ID are admitted FREE, Students with ID receive a $1 discount.
Wednesdays: New Mexico resident seniors (60+) with ID are free.
Field Trips: There is no charge for educational groups attending the museum with their instructor and/or adult chaperones. Contact the Tours office by phone at (505) 476-1140 or (505) 476-1211 to arrange class/group visits to the Museum.